The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is one of the foundations of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime. The treaty entered into force 1970 and is nearly universal with close to 190 parties, and only India, Israel, and Pakistan remain non-parties (North Korea withdrew in early 2003). The NPT defines nuclear-weapon states as states that manufactured or exploded a nuclear weapon prior to January 1, 1967, the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom or the "P-5". All other states are defined by the treaty as non-nuclear-weapon states. The NPT remains the only global legal instrument in which:
NPT Article VIII allows for a conference every five years if a majority of parties so desire to review the operation of the treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the preamble and provisions of the treaty are being realized. They have done so every five years since 1975. The Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference now meets in the three years prior to the Review Conference to make procedural arrangements and discuss matters of substance related to treaty implementation. The 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference indefinitely extended the NPT.
For more information on the treaty, click here .
To view NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino's presentation at the 2010 NPT Review Conference, click here .