• The U.S.-Russia Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA), which entered into force on July 13, 2011, commits each country to dispose of at least 34 metric tons (MT) of weapon-grade
  • In 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced plans to reduce the proliferation threat from stockpiles of surplus highly enriched uranium (HEU) by down-blending, or converting, it to low