Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act requires the conclusion of a specific agreement for significant transfers of nuclear material, equipment, or components from the United States to another nation. Section 123 Agreements are important tools in advancing U.S. nonproliferation principles. These Agreements act in conjunction with other nonproliferation tools, particularly the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, to establish the legal framework for significant nuclear cooperation with other countries. Moreover, the Agreements allow for cooperation in other areas, such as technical exchanges, scientific research, and safeguards discussions. In order for a country to enter into such an Agreement with the United States, that country must commit itself to adhering to U.S.- mandated nuclear nonproliferation norms. The United States has entered into agreements with the following states or groups of states:
States that have Agreements for Cooperation with the United States:
European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)1
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Korea, Republic of (ROK)
United Arab Emirates
1 Euratom comprises the following Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
2 Pursuant to Section 6 of the Taiwan Relations Act, P.L. 96-8, 93 Stat. 14, and Executive Order 12143, 44 F.R. 37191, all agreements concluded with the Taiwan authorities prior to January 1, 1979 are administered on a nongovernmental basis by the American Institute in Taiwan, a non-profit District of Columbia corporation, and constitute neither recognition of Taiwan authorities nor the continuation of any official relationship with Taiwan.