IMPC began in 1994 as a task force to mitigate the security vulnerabilities of special nuclear material arising from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, the program has evolved into a global effort, engaging over 40 countries to deny terrorists the vital materials needed to engage in acts of nuclear terror.
The IMPC program employs a two-tiered strategy to implement its mission:
Material Protection, Control and Accounting program (MPC&A)  improves the security of nuclear weapons and materials at their source, through material protection, control and accounting upgrades at nuclear sites in Russia and other countries of concern. The scope of the MPC&A Program includes 37 Russian nuclear material sites, 73 Russian nuclear warhead sites and 13 non-Russian nuclear material sites. The MPC&A Program also includes efforts to consolidate and convert weapons-usable nuclear material stocks, to develop a sustainable MPC&A infrastructure in Russia, and to support the implementation of nuclear security best practices by countries outside of Russia.
The Second Line of Defense  strengthens the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. IMPC works collaboratively with foreign partners to equip border crossings, airports and seaports with radiation detection equipment. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program provides training in the use of the systems for appropriate law enforcement officials and initial system sustainability support as the host government assumes operational responsibility for the equipment.