Meeting U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Commitments
NNSA utilizes its technical expertise and capabilities to implement Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) provisions relating to all three pillars of the Treaty – disarmament, nonproliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
Consistent with the President’s nuclear security agenda, the results of the Nuclear Posture Review, and U.S. obligations under Article VI of the NPT, the United States continues to reduce the role and number of weapons in its nuclear weapons stockpile, and NNSA remains dedicated to transforming the Nuclear Security Enterprise to manage effectively a smaller stockpile and address the broad range of 21st century national security challenges. Key NNSA activities relating to the disarmament pillar of the Treaty include:
- Supporting negotiation and implementation of the New START Treaty with Russia, which obligates each Party to limit its deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 1,550 – a level not seen in the U.S. since the 1950s.
- Dismantling approximately 9,000 nuclear weapons between 1994 and 2009, and meeting or exceeding annual dismantlement targets ever since. This includes complete dismantlement of the W62 intercontinental ballistic missile warhead, the W70 tactical missile warhead, and in October 2011, the B53 strategic bomb, which was one of the highest yield weapons recently fielded by the United States.
- Ceasing the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons purposes, and making unavailable for weapons use 374 metric tons of highly enriched uranium, and over 60 metric tons of plutonium.
- Enabling a safe, secure, and effective nuclear deterrent without nuclear weapons testing.
- Supporting the International Monitoring System and developing on-site inspection capabilities to enable verification of a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty which is awaiting ratification.
- Monitoring the downblending of over 460 metric tons (as of September 2012) of Russian HEU under the 1993 U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement, and monitoring over 9 metric tons of Russian plutonium oxide under the terms of the Plutonium Production Reactor Agreement to ensure continued non-weapons use.
- Developing technical verification capabilities to support potential future agreements to further reduce and verify nuclear weapons stockpiles.
In addition to playing an important role in meeting U.S. obligations under Article VI of the NPT, NNSA works with other U.S. Government agencies to meet its International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards obligations. The U.S.-IAEA Safeguards Agreement entered into force in December 1980. The United States currently has approximately 300 facilities on its Eligible Facilities List. Since 1994, the IAEA has conducted more than 550 inspections in the United States, all at facilities containing material removed permanently from weapons programs.
The U.S.-IAEA Additional Protocol (AP) entered into force on January 6, 2009. Under this protocol, the United States accepts all of the provisions of the Model AP, with the added inclusion of a national security exclusion. The United States made its initial declaration under the AP on July 3, 2009, and updates this declaration annually. The United States made its first report of export of Annex II items (specified equipment and non-nuclear material according to AP Article 2.a. (ix)) in May 2009, and has made regular reports each quarter thereafter. In each case, U.S. reports and declarations to the IAEA have met the deadlines set forth in the U.S. AP.
NNSA also cooperates with many countries to support the implementation of international safeguards in those states. This cooperation is closely coordinated with the IAEA and provides partners with the capacity and expertise necessary to effectively implement these important measures, which are obligated under Article III of the NPT. NNSA also provides technical support to countries as they prepare to implement the AP.
In her May 2010 address to the Review Conference (RevCon) for the NPT, Secretary of State Clinton announced a $100 million initiative to expand access to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as called for by Article IV of the NPT. The initiative is focused on funding projects through the IAEA that apply nuclear applications to human health, food security, water resource management, and the development of nuclear power infrastructure. In support of the IAEA Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI), the United States pledged $50 million in new funds over the FY 2010-2014 period and plans to work with other countries and donors to match that pledge amount before the next NPT RevCon in 2015.
Over the initiative’s five years, NNSA will contribute nearly $13 million, and will focus its contributions on nuclear power infrastructure projects. NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative  (GTRI) has funded projects to build regulatory infrastructure related to enhancing nuclear and radiological security around the world, while also supporting research efforts at facilities where threat reduction activities are active. NNSA’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NSGI) , along with the Office of Nuclear Energy  (NE), has funded a broad range of projects related to IAEA efforts to improve human resource development, strengthen regulatory infrastructures, establish national training centers, and upgrade the safety of national nuclear institutions. The Offices of NE and Science  (SC) are funding the remaining $12 million, with NE supporting projects on spent fuel performance, small and medium sized reactor development and deployment, and nuclear power infrastructure development and SC focusing largely on non-power projects.
*NNSA officials have briefed different U.N.-sponsored bodies on the U.S. record of compliance with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and other U.S. efforts to advance nonproliferation.