In 2004, NNSA established the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) in the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation to, as quickly as possible, identify, secure, remove and/or facilitate the disposition of high risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world that pose a threat to the United States and the international community.
GTRI’s mission is to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. GTRI achieves its mission via three initiatives which provide a comprehensive approach to preventing terrorists’ access to nuclear and radiological materials. As part of its mission, GTRI’s Convert Program, working domestically and internationally, implements the long-standing U.S policy to minimize and eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian applications by working to convert research and test reactors and isotope production facilities to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU).
Taken together with NNSA’s work to prevent proliferation and secure nuclear material, the Convert Program demonstrates GTRI’s commitment to protecting the American people and the rest of the world from nuclear and radiological terrorism.
Since its inception, GTRI has accelerated its nuclear security efforts and made significant progress to reduce the risk posed by vulnerable civilian nuclear and radiological materials, which could be used by terrorists to make an improvised nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device ("dirty bomb").
GTRI has converted or verified the shutdown of 88 HEU research reactors and isotope production facilities; supported the first successful large scale production of the important medical isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) using LEU targets, and supported the development of a reliable, domestic supply of Mo-99 without using HEU.
Domestic Conversions & Shutdowns
In working to minimize the use of HEU and prevent terrorists from getting nuclear materials, GTRI has to date:
Foreign Conversions & Shutdowns
In working to minimize the use of HEU and prevent terrorists from getting nuclear materials, GTRI has to date successfully:
Isotope Production Facilities
GTRI’s Molybdenum-99 Program assists global Mo-99 producers in converting their Mo-99 production facilities from the use of HEU targets to LEU targets, and works with existing commercial entities to accelerate the establishment of non-HEU-based Mo-99 production in the United States. Since 2004, GTRI has successfully: